Production Process

Cement manufacturing process


Manufacturing Process Introduction

The cement manufacturing process consist of the following multi stages as explain in the following flow chart.

Stage 1
Quarrying Raw material
Stage 2
Raw material processing (Crushing)
Stage 3
Raw meal preparation (pre blending ang grinding the crushed limestone)
Stage 4
Raw meal homogenizing
Stage 5
Preheating and pyro processing
Stage 6
Clinker cooling
Stage 7
Clinker Storage
Stage 8
Cement Grinding (with Gypsum & additives)
Stage 9
Packing Dispatch

Cement manufacturing process can classified in to two types in thermal operation as wet process and dry process. Palavi process operation is designed in dry process manufacturing which is most widely used method in the world was established in 1969 as state cement manufacturing cooperation and owned by Siam City Cement which is Thailand based cement manufacturing company.

Figure 02: Process Flow of the Cement Manufacturing Process – Palavi Operation

A wide range of tests and equipment to assess fresh and hardened concrete properties

  • Specified Tests for Self-Compacting Concrete
    • Flow Table Test – BS EN 12350-5:2019
    • J-Ring Test – BS EN 12350-12:2010
    • V Funnel – BS EN 12350-09:2010
    • L Box – EN 12350
  • Slump test – BS EN 12350-2 and ASTM C143
  • Density of fresh concrete – ASTM C138
  • Air content in fresh concrete – ASTM 231
  • Concrete bleeding – ASTM 232
  • Concrete setting time – ASTM C403
  • Compressive Strength up to 180 MPa – Testing Machines (3000 & 4000KN) – Double the existing strength standards in Sri Lanka
  • NDT for Compressive Strength up to 130 MPa – Impact Rebound Hammers – Double the existing equipment capacity in Sri Lanka
  • Flexural Strength – ASTM C78 / BS EN 12390-5-2019
  • Splitting Resistance – ASTM C-496 / EN 12390-6 / EN 1338
  • Concrete Specimen Grinding Machine – BS EN 12390-2 2019/ ASTM D4543

A wide range of tests and equipment to assess and ensure your aggregate grade meets the demand and requirement of your concrete.

  • INSEE Measurement Tools
    • INSEE Blue™ – Assess clay content as key quality indicator for manufactured and natural pit sand
    • INSEE Shape™ – Assess the grain shape particles as key quality indicator for manufactured sand
  • Coarse and fine aggregate particles size distribution – ASTM C136 / C136M – 19 & BS EN 933-1
  • Relative Density and Absorption of Coarse Aggregates – ASTM C127-12
  • Aggregate Impact Value (AIV) – BS EN 1097-2:2010
  • Flakiness Index & Elongation Index – BS EN 933-3:2012
  • Soundness Test of Aggregates – SN EN 206-1
  • Aggregate Crushing Value (ACV)- BS EN 1097-2:2010
  • Los Angeles Abrasion Test – ASTM C 131-06

A range of tests to assess properties of fresh concrete that go beyond the traditional ‘slump test’, improving the quality and consistency of concrete.

  • INSEE Measurement Tools
    • INSEE Flow™
    • INSEE Heat™
    • INSEE Color™
    • INSEE ConTemp™
  • ICAR Rheometer for paste, mortar & concrete toassess pumpability, flow resistance, thickness, slump retention, admixtures compatibility
  • Grout for Pre-Stressing Tendons – BS EN 445 2007
  • Electrical Conductivity for paste & mortar
  • Cementometer™ latest microwave technology for the determination of fresh concrete water to cement w/c ratio

Advanced testing with durability indicators to optimize structural performance and extend the service life of concrete structures exposed to severe environments.

  • Rapid Chloride Permeability Test - ASTM C1202
  • Bulk Electrical Conductivity of Hardened Concrete - ASTM C1760-12
  • Specific Resistivity - RILEM TC154 - AASHTO T358
  • Concrete Carbonation - Swiss SIA 262-1/1 CEN/TS 12390-12
  • O2 Permeability - RILEM 116-PCD CEMBUREAU Method
  • Capillary Water Absorption/ Sorptivity - Swiss SIA 262/1:2013 ASTM C1585-04
  • Initial Surface Absorption (ISAT) - BS 1881 Part 5
  • Water Permeability - EN 12390-8:2000
  • Concrete Sulphate Resistance - SIA 262-1/A